Microwave Training Fundamentals

Microwave Training Fundamentals

Course Delivery

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Course Overview:

Microwave Fundamentals Training – Hands-on

This Microwave Training Fundamentals course will help you understand the (often non-intuitive) effects various obstacles in the transmitter-receiver path have on the received signal. You will learn how even those structures that are not in the direct path but merely close to it can have nontrivial effect on the signal. Upon completion of this Microwave Training Fundamentals course, you will be able to evaluate fixed links, determine the correct positions for the transmitting and receiving antennas, and identify the mitigating mechanisms for those occasions when the antennas cannot be optimally located.

Microwave links – fixed line-of-sight in particular, present some unique problems in areas such as propagation and fading characteristics. Mobility not being an issue, the relationship of the wave-length to the lengths of man made or natural obstacles becomes the principal concern in such environments.

Customize It:

• If you are familiar with some aspects of this Microwave Training Fundamentals course, we can omit or shorten their discussion.
• We can adjust the emphasis placed on the various topics or build the course around the mix of technologies of interest to you (including technologies other than those included in this outline).
• If your background is nontechnical, we can exclude the more technical topics, include the topics that may be of special interest to you (e.g., as a manager or policy-maker), and present the Microwave Training Fundamentals course in manner understandable to lay audiences.

Related Courses:

HF Communications Training
DAS Training | Distributed Antenna System Training

Microwave Training Fundamentals – Course Syllabus:


◾Microwave versus copper cable, fiber optics, and leased services
◾Microwave frequency bands and regulations
◾Channelizing the radio spectrum: Frequency, time, and code division multiple access (FDMA, TDMA, CDMA)
◾History of analog microwave radio: FDM techniques and hierarchies; L Carrier and ITU frequency plans

Digital Transmission Systems

◾Sampling theory
◾Time Division Multiplex (TDM) techniques and hierarchies
◾North American and ITU digital hierarchies
◾Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH)
◾Synchronous networks (SDH/SONET)

Digital Power Spectra and Bandwidths

◾Bandwidth definitions and requirements
◾Nyquist and other shaping
◾Regulatory masks
◾Baseband data signals
◾Filtering and rolloff factors

Digital Modulation

◾Amplitude, frequency, and phase shift keying (ASK, FSK, PSK)
◾Binary versus M-ary modulation
◾QPSK, Offset QPSK, and p/4 QPSK
◾Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)
◾QAM and Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM)
◾Orthogonal FDM (OFDM)

Line of Sight Transmission

◾Free space loss
◾Effect of terrain
◾Reflection and diffraction
◾Fresnel zones and path profiles
◾Clearance requirements

Effects of Climate

◾Refraction and variations in radio refractivity (N factor)
◾Snell?s law and the effective earth radius (K factor)
◾Rain attenuation; specific rain rate and effective path length; ITU rain attenuation model
◾Other atmospheric attenuation
◾Prediction of outage using computer models

Microwave Training Fundamentals – Fading

◾Multipath fading
◾Reflection and diffraction causes
◾Rayleigh, Rician, and log-normal statistics of fading
◾Multipath propagation models; Barnett-Vigants observations; ITU models
◾Diurnal and seasonal variations

Effect of Fading on Digital Radio

◾Flat versus frequency selective fading
◾Minimum versus non-minimum phase fading
◾M and W curves
◾Flat, dispersive, and composite fade margins
◾Calculation of estimated outage using computer models

Microwave Training Fundamentals – Equalization

◾Linear versus non-linear equalization
◾Transversal filter
◾Zero-forcing equalization versus minimum mean-square error
◾Decision feedback equalization and training equalizer

Antennas and Diversity

◾Antennas types and parameters: Gain, directivity, radiation pattern, polarization, beamwidth
◾Waveguide types and characteristics: Rectangular, circular
◾Diversity types: Space, frequency, angle, polarization, hybrid
◾Diversity combining and improvements over non-diversity systems

Forward Error Correction

◾Definition of coding types and coding gain
◾Types of block codes with examples: CRC and Hamming codes
◾Convolutional coding and Viterbi decoding, with example
◾Interleaving and turbo codes

Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) Coordination

◾Interference analysis for co-channel and adjacent-channel
◾Carrier-to-Interference (C/I) ratio
◾Threshold-to-interference (T/I) ratio
◾Manual and computer-aided design for intra- and inter-system interference
◾Frequency planning
◾Satellite and other external interference
◾Detailed analysis of a terrestrial RFI case

Microwave Implementation

◾Performance objectives
◾Acceptance testing and performance monitoring
◾Path engineering

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