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Course Name: Wireline Synchronization Training
Course Duration: 1 Day
Deployment Option: Onsite Training
Course Price: CALL

Who Should Attend:
Anyone who is interested in understanding synchronization and timing in telecom network, including technicians, engineers, operators, and sync managers.
Course (Synchronization Fundamentals) or equivalent knowledge is recommended.
Course Description:
Timing and synchronization are critical in the telecom networks such as PSTN, SONET/SDH, DWDM, ATM, and VoIP. This course provides a technical overview of the synchronization.
Course Objectives:
This course provides you with a comprehensive foundation in wireline synchronization.
Course Outline:

Telecom Network Synchronization overview

  • Overview of wireline networks
  • Transmission Environment
  • T-Carrier
  • SDH
  • PDH
  • Need for timing in SONET/SDH, DWDM, ATM, and VoIP
  • Understanding the sync impact on a wireline network
  • Typical sync implementation in a wireline network
  • Impact on sync on carrier grade service quality

Understanding Clock Parameters

  • Understanding Clock Parameters
  • Primary Reference Specs
  • TSG/SASE Specs
  • Equipment Clock Specs: SMC, SEC, and Stratum 3

Traditional Network Synchronization Design

  • Sizing the network
  • Number of PRS sites
  • Choice of TSG Quality
  • Intra-Office Distribution
  • Inter-Office Sync Transport

Fundamental principles of synchronization in a wireline network

  • Overview of sync problems in a wireline network
  • Jitter and Wander
  • Slips and Pointer Adjustments
  • Standards & Clock Sources
  • Role of ITU-T, ETSI, ANSI and Telcordia
  • PRC Standards
  • Slave clock standards
  • Electrical interface standards
  • Jitter and Wander standards
  • Caesium, GPS and Interconnect Partner
  • Slave clocks - SSU and SEC
  • VCO and PLL
  • Traceability, DPLLs, and Master-slave Clocking
  • Sync Trail Robustness
  • Primary Clocks and Plesiochronous Operation
  • Timing Islands and Holdover Mode
  • The BITS Concept, TSGs and SSUs
  • Slave Clock Model and Clock Hierarchies
  • Asynchronous Transmission of Synchronous DS1/E1 Signals
  • Timing Loops and Sync Status Messages (SSM)

Transmission and transport architecture

  • Conventional asynchronous transmission and transport architecture
  • Building Integrated Timing Systems (BITS), or "clock" systems
  • Synchronous optical network (Sonet) with BITS
  • SONET with synchronization messaging with or without BITS
  • SONET with synchronization via conventional asynchronous transmission and BITS vs. SSU (Sync
  • Supply Unit) clock systems
  • Synchronous Optical NETwork (SONET) with BITS
  • Global positioning system (GPS)-derived timing for SONET systems
  • SONET with synchronization messaging with or without BITS
  • SONET with synchronization via conventional asynchronous
  • transmission and BITS
  • Global Positioning System (GPS)-derived timing for SONET systems
  • The GPS clock is a critical component of the CDMA/W-CDMA
  • Synchronization distribution elements
  • Effective synchronization planning Jitter and wander
  • Requirements for sync in "asynchronous" networks
  • Cesium vs. GPS Primary Reference Source (PRS)

Synchronization in Access Networks

  • Access technologies
  • ATM
  • CWDM
  • DDS
  • DS1/DS3
  • DSL
  • DWDM
  • E1/E2
  • Fiber Optics
  • Frame Relay
  • Gigabit Ethernet
  • HSSI
  • ISDN
  • OTDR
  • PDH
  • SS7
  • T1/T3
  • v.5x
  • Voice over IP
  • Sync Distribution in the access network
  • GR-303

SONET and SDH Synchronization

  • SONET/SDH technology
  • SONET/SDH Network Elements
  • Transport mechanism
  • Pointers
  • Sync distribution techniques
  • SONET/SDH Network Elements
  • Terminal Multiplexer
  • Regenerator
  • Add/Drop Multiplexer
  • Digital Cross-Connects
  • Digital Loop Carrier
  • SONET/SDH Network Configurations
  • Point-to-Point
  • Point-to-Multipoint
  • Hub Architecture
  • Ring Architecture

ATM Core Concepts and need for Synchronization

  • ATM cell structure and architecture
  • ATM functionality
  • Bit-stream transport
  • Frames vs. cells
  • ATM Virtual Circuits
  • ATM cell header
  • ATM network interfaces
  • ATM adaptation types (AALs)
  • ATM signaling

Optical Transport Networks

  • Optical Networking and DWDM
  • Optical Components
  • Optical Spectral Filters and Gratings
  • Optical Demultiplexers
  • Optical Cross-Connects
  • Optical Add-Drop Multiplexers
  • DWDM and SONET
  • Optical Network Signal Structure
  • Sync Transport Mechanisms

SONET/SDH Rings and Sync Distribution

  • SONET/SDH Rates and Format Considerations
  • SONET: OC-N, STS-N, and SPEst
  • SDH: STM-N and AU
  • Pointer Mechanism
  • Payload Mapping Philosophies
  • Effects on Payload signals from Pointer Activity Decomposing SONET/SDH Ring-based Networks
  • Locating PRS Sites
  • Choosing TSG/SSU for non-PRS Sites
  • Payload Considerations