Diameter Training Overview

Duration: 2 days

Introduction

Diameter Training Course covers Diameter protocol which was derived from the RADIUS protocol with a lot of improvements in different aspects aligned with Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) protocol. The Diameter protocol is widely used in the IMS architecture for IMS entities to exchange AAA-related information. An excellent course covering Diameter protocol overview, architecture, signaling, security and more.

Diameter Training Overview

Related Courses

After completing this course, attendees will be able to:

  • Sketch the LTE/EPC and IMS architectures
  • Explain Diameter protocol features including the Base
  • Identify Diameter features, applications, security
  • Describe Diameter protocol capabilities
  • Describe Diameter Accounting and Credit Control
  • Describe the functions supported by Diameter Protocol
  • Illustrate key 3GPP/LET/EPC Diameter interfaces
  • Describe Diameter-based interfaces including: Cx/Dx, Sh/Dh, Rf/Ro, Gq/Go, Rq, Gq’, e2 and e4
  • Identify the key elements for Diameter messages such as ER/CEA, DWR/DWA, DPR/DPA, RAR/RAA, and CCR/CCA
  • Describe PCC (Policy and Charging Control)
  • Describe Charging Interfaces (Gy, Ro, Gx, Gz, Sy, Rx, Sd
  • Describe Offline and Online Charging
  • Sketch PCC architecture (PCRF, PCEF, SPR, OCS)

Introduction to Diameter

  • What is Diameter?
  • History
  • Applications
  • Protocol description
  • Problems to be addressed
  • Diameter Protocol in 3GPP context
  • Diameter Architecture
  • Load Balanceing
  • Diameter Router
  • Diameter Routing Agent (DRA)

Diameter Protocol Overview

  • Transport
  • SCTP Guidelines
  • Securing Diameter Messages
  • Diameter Application Compliance
  • Application Identifiers
  • Connections vs. Sessions
  • Peer Table
  • Realm-Based Routing Table
  • Role of Diameter Agents
  • Relay Agents
  • Proxy Agents
  • Redirect Agents
  • Translation Agents
  • End-to-End Security Framework
  • Diameter Path Authorization

Diameter Header

  • Command Codes
  • Command Code ABNF specification
  • Diameter Command Naming Conventions
  • Diameter AVPs
  • AVP Header
  • Optional Header Elements
  • Basic AVP Data Formats
  • Derived AVP Data Formats
  • Grouped AVP Values
  • Example AVP with a Grouped Data Type
  • Diameter Base Protocol AVPs

Diameter Peers

  • Peer Connections
  • Diameter Peer Discovery
  • Capabilities Exchange
  • CapabilitiesExchangeRequest
  • CapabilitiesExchangeAnswer
  • Disconnecting Peer Connections
  • DisconnectPeerRequest
  • DisconnectPeerAnswer
  • Transport Failure Detection
  • DeviceWatchdogRequest
  • DeviceWatchdogAnswer
  • Transport Failure Algorithm
  • Failover and Failback Procedures
  • PeerStateMachine
  • Incoming connections
  • Events
  • Actions
  • The Election Process

Diameter Message Processing

  • Diameter Request Routing Overview
  • Originating a Request
  • Sending a Request
  • Receiving Requests
  • Processing Local Requests
  • Request Forwarding
  • Request Routing
  • Redirecting Requests
  • Relaying and Proxying Requests
  • Diameter Answer Processing
  • Processing Received Answers
  • Relaying and Proxying Answers

Error Handling

  • ResultCode AVP
  • Informational
  • Success
  • Protocol Errors
  • Transient Failures
  • Permanent Failures
  • Error Bit

Diameter User Sessions

  • AuthorizationSessionStateMachine
  • AccountingSessionStateMachine
  • ServerInitiated ReAuth
  • ReAuthRequest
  • ReAuthAnswer
  • Session Termination
  • SessionTerminationRequest
  • SessionTerminationAnswer
  • Aborting a Session
  • AbortSessionRequest
  • AbortSessionAnswer
  • Inferring Session Termination from OriginStateId

Accounting and Billing

  • Server Directed Model
  • Protocol Messages
  • Application Document Requirements
  • Fault Resilience
  • Accounting Records
  • Correlation of Accounting Records
  • Accounting CommandCodes
  • AccountingRequest
  • AccountingAnswer
  • Accounting AVPs

Diameter Protocol Related Configurable Parameters

  • Security Considerations
  • IPSec Usage
  • TLS Usage

Diameter Messages

  • Messages defined in the DIAMETER base protocol
  • AbortSessionRequest
  • AbortSessionAnswer
  • AccountingRequest
  • AccountingAnswer
  • CapabilitiesExchangingRequest
  • CapabilitiesExchangingAnswer
  • DeviceWatchdogRequest
  • DeviceWatchdogAnswer
  • DisconnectPeerRequest
  • DisconnectPeerAnswer
  • ReAuthRequest
  • ReAuthAnswer
  • SessionTerminationRequest
  • SessionTerminationAnswer

Diameter Routing and Management

  • Diameter routing concepts
  • Diameter message manipulation with DRA
  • Usage reporting and event trigger reporting

Diameter Applied to IMS and HSPA/HSPA+/LTE

  • Accounting
  • Server Directed Model
  • Protocol Messages
  • Application Document Requirements
  • Fault Resilience
  • Accounting Records
  • Correlation of Accounting Records
  • Diameter messages
  • CER/CEA
  • DWR/DWA
  • DPR/DPA
  • RAR/RAA
  • CCR/CCA

Diameter in the LTE/EPS Environment

  • Types of DIAMETER Nodes in IMS/LTE
  • Client (e.g., S4SGSN, MME, NAS)
  • Server (e.g., HSS)
  • Agent
  • Relay Agent
  • Proxy Agent (e.g., DRA)
  • Redirect Agent (e.g., SLF)
  • Translation Agent (e.g., MAP, DIAMETER IWF)
  • Offline and Online Charging procedures and call flows
  • Offline Charging CDR content
  • Online Charging AVPs and how they can be used for rating
  • PCC Architecture in within EPC/LTE
  • PCC Architecture and Components: PCRF, PCEF, SPR, OCS
  • Charging plans and policies with PCC architecture

Example of Diameter Interfaces

  • S6a between MME and HSS
  • S6d between S4SGSN and HSS
  • S13 between MME and EIR
  • S13 ’ between S4SGSN and EIR
  • S9 between Visited PCRF and Home PCRF
  • Gx between PDNGW and PCRF
  • Gxx (Gxa, Gxb, Gxc) for policy control
  • Gy between PDNGW and OCS
  • Gz between PDNGW and OFCS
  • Rx between PCSCF and PCRF
  • Sp between PCRF and SPR
  • Diameter Applications in IMS
  • Rc (IMS)
  • Re (IMS)
  • Rx (IMS)
  • Diameter Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Application (RFC 4740)
  • Cx (IMS), Dx (IMS), Sh (IMS) and Dh (IMS)
  • Rf (IMS)
  • Diameter CreditControl Application (RFC 4006): Ro (IMS)

Diameter usage on the Cx and Dx reference points

  • UserAuthorizationRequest (UAR) Command
  • UserAuthorizationAnswer (UAA) Command
  • ServerAssignmentRequest (SAR) Command
  • ServerAssignmentAnswer (SAA) Command
  • LocationInfoRequest (LIR) Command
  • LocationInfoAnswer (LIA) Command
  • MultimediaAuthRequest (MAR) Command
  • MultimediaAuthAnswer (MAA) Command
  • RegistrationTerminationRequest (RTR) Command
  • RegistrationTerminationAnswer (RTA) Command
  • PushProfileRequest (PPR) Command
  • PushProfileAnswer (PPA) Command

 

Diameter Protocol Resources: IETF and 3GPP DIAMETER Reference: Diameter Interfaces

  • DIAMETER interfaces in the IETF, 3GPP, 3GPP2, ETSI TISPAN, PacketCable, MSF and ITU Interface
  • Network Location
  • Supported version
  • Diameter Base Protocol
  • IETF RFC 3588
  • Diameter Commands for 3GPP
  • IETF RFC 3589
  • Diameter Credit Control App
  • IETF RFC 4006
  • NASREQ Support for Network Access Server
  • IETF RFC 4005
  • EAP Support for Extensible Authentication Protocol
  • IETF RFC 4072
  • Mobile IPv4 Support for Diameter Mobile IPv4
  • IETF RFC 4004
  • Diameter Mobile IPv6
  • IETF RFC 5447
  • Diameter SIP Application
  • IETF RFC 4740
  • Sh interface
  • Between AS and HSS
  • 3GGP TS 29.328 & TS 29.329
  • Dh interface
  • Between AS and SLF
  • 3GGP TS 29.328 & TS 29.329
  • Rf interface
  • Between AS and OFCS
  • RFC 4006, 3GGP TS 32.225 & TS 32.299
  • Ro interface
  • Between AS and OCS
  • RFC 4006, 3GGP TS 32.225 & TS 32.299
  • Re interface
  • Between OCF and Rating function
  • 3GPP TS 32.296
  • Cx interface
  • Between CSCF and HSS
  • 3GPP TS 29.228 & TS29.229
  • Dx interface
  • Between CSCF and SLF
  • 3GPP TS 29.228 & TS29.229
  • Sp interface
  • Between PCRF and SPR
  • 3GPP TS 23.203, TS 29.328 & TS 29.329
  • Rx interface
  • Between AF and the PCRF
  • 3GPP TS 23.203 & TS 29.214
  • Rx+ interface
  • Rx reference point for EPC
  • 3GPP TS 32820, 3GPP TS 23.203 & TS 29.214
  • Gx interface
  • Between PCEF and the PCRF
  • 3GPP TS 29.212 & TS 23.203
  • Gy interface
  • Between OCS and PCEF
  • 3GPP TS 32.29, TS 32.251 & RFC 4006
  • Gz interface
  • Between PCEF and OFCS
  • 3GPP TS 32.240, TS 32.295
  • Gq interface
  • Between AF and PDF
  • 3GPP TS 29.209
  • Gi interface
  • Between Packet Domain and an external packet data network
  • 3GPP TS 29.061
  • SGi interface
  • between the EPC based PLMN and the packet data network
  • 3GPP TS 29.061
  • Zh interface
  • Between BSF and HSS
  • 3GPP TS 29.109 & TS 33.220
  • Zh interface
  • Between BSF and HSS (used between operators)
  • 3GPP TS 29.109 & TS 33.220
  • Dz interface
  • Between BSF and SLF
  • 3GPP TS 29.109 & TS 33.220
  • Zn interface
  • Between BSF and NAF
  • 3GPP TS 29.109 & TS 33.220
  • Zn’ interface
  • Between BSF and Zn Proxy
  • 3GPP TS 29.109 & TS 33.220
  • Dw interface
  • Between the 3GPP AAA Server and an SLF
  • 3GPP TS 29.234
  • Wa interface
  • Between the WLAN AN and the 3GPP AAA Proxy
  • 3GPP TS 29.234
  • Wd interface
  • Between the 3GPP AAA Proxy and 3GPP AAA Server
  • 3GPP TS 29.234
  • Wx interface
  • Between the 3GPP AAA Server and the HSS
  • 3GPP TS 29.234
  • Wm interface
  • Between the 3GPP AAA Server and the PDG
  • 3GPP TS 29.234
  • Wg interface
  • Between the 3GPP AAA Server/Proxy and the WAG
  • 3GPP TS 29.234
  • Pr interface
  • Between the 3GPP AAA Server and the PNA
  • 3GPP TS 29.234
  • Wm interface
  • Between the 3GPP AAA Server and the PDG
  • 3GPP TS 29.234
  • Gmb interface
  • Between GGSN and BMSC
  • 3GPP TS 29.061
  • Mz interface
  • Mz is the roaming variant of the Gmb reference point with the same functionality
  • 3GPP TS 29.061
  • Bi interface
  • CCF to BS
  • 3GPP TS TS 32.225
  • MM10 interface
  • Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS)
  • OMA MM10 interface
  • Ty interface
  • Between AGW and PCRF
  • 3GPP2 TSGX X.S0013014
  • Tx interface
  • Between AF and PCRF
  • 3GPP2 TSGX X.S0013013
  • S6a interface
  • Between MME and HSS
  • 3GPP TS 29.272
  • S6b interface
  • Between the 3GPP AAA Server/Proxy and the PDN GW
  • 3GPP TS 23402
  • S6d interface
  • Between MME and HSS
  • 3GPP TS 29.272
  • S7c interface
  • Transfer of (QoS) policy information from PCRF to the SGW.
  • 3GPP TS 32820, TS 23402
  • S9 interface
  • Between PCRF in the HPLMN (H PCRF) and a PCRF in the VPLMN (V PCRF)
  • 3GPP TS 23.203 & TS 29.215
  • S13 interface
  • Between MME and EIR
  • 3GPP TS 29.272
  • Gxa interface
  • PCRF and the BBERF
  • 3GPP TS 23.203
  • Gxb interface
  • Between ePDG and vPCRF
  • 3GPP TS 23.203
  • Gxc interface
  • PCRF and the BBERF
  • 3GPP TS 23.203
  • SWa interface
  • Between an untrusted non3GPP IP access and the 3GPP AAA Server/Proxy
  • 3GPP TS 23402
  • SWd interface
  • Between the 3GPP AAA Proxy and 3GPP AAA Server
  • 3GPP TS 23402
  • SWn interface

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